"I realise that some of my criticisms may be mistaken; but to refuse to criticize judgements for fear of being mistaken is to abandon criticism altogether... If any of my criticisms are found to be correct, the cause is served; and if any are found to be incorrect the very process of finding out my mistakes must lead to the discovery of the right reasons, or better reasons than I have been able to give, and the cause is served just as well." -Mr. HM Seervai, Preface to the 1st ed., Constitutional Law of India.

Monday, June 6, 2016

Part III: Applicability of the 2015 Arbitration Amendment Act to Arbitration Related Court Proceedings: The Lok Sabha Debates

We had done three posts on the retrospective operation of the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015:

a) The blog post titled “Applicability of the 2015 Arbitration Amendment Act to Arbitration Related Court Proceedings: Part I” posted on 04.04.2016 in the Practical Academic Blog. The post dealt with Section 26 of the Amendment Act on the point and the conflicting decisions of various High Courts on the retrospective applicability of the 2015 Amendments. (link)

b) The blog post titled “Part II: Applicability of the 2015 Arbitration Amendment Act to Arbitration Related Court Proceedings posted on 07.04.2016 dealt with Thyssen (SC:1999) and compared of Section 26 of the 2015 Act and Section 85(2)(a) of the 1996 Act (link)

c) The blog post titled “Is the New Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Ordinance, 2015 Prospective or Retrospective?” published in the blog on 28.10.2015 noted the possible divergence of views of different courts on the question (link)

It was suggested to this blawgger that these posts do not deal with the Lok Sabha Debates on the point. Hence, this post addresses the debates of the Lok Sabha on the applicability of the 2015 Amendment Act to pending arbitral proceedings. 

Before embarking on the Lok Sabha debates, it would do well to contextualise the discussion. The predecessor to the relevant Lok Sabha Debates seems to be the judgement of the Hon’ble Madras High Court in Delphi TVS v. Union of India (24.11.2015: MANU/TN/3726/2015) where the Court directed the Union of India (rep. by the Learned Addl. Solicitor General Shri Su. Srinivasan) to examine, among other things, if the Ordinance would apply to pending proceedings. The Court referred to the absence in the Ordinance of Section 85A recommended by the Law Commission and also predicted the possibility of unnecessary litigations on the question. The relevant portions of the judgement are extracted below:


"4. The first respondent, while filing the counter-affidavit, especially since the matter is at the Ordinance stage, must examine the issue of pending arbitration proceedings, as the provision in question apparently is not one which was recommended by the Law Commission in this form. There would be huge litigations unnecessarily generated in respect of the pending arbitrations and the provision being procedural in nature fixing the time limit, it can be clarified that it would be either not applicable to the pending arbitrations or if it is applicable to the pending arbitrations, the time period specified therein would commence from the date of the Ordinance, to obviate such unnecessary litigations.
5. In the aforesaid context, the learned counsel for the petitioners further points out that another issue which has given rise to considerable litigation already is the non-introduction of the proposed Section 85A by the Law Commission, which dealt with the aspect as to which provision would apply prospectively and which would apply retrospectively."

As regards the Lok Sabha Debates on the question, it appears that on 17.12.2015, an MP, Shri Jithender Reddy (Mahabubnagar) raised the issue of non-incorporation of the Law Commission’s Section 85A in the Bill. It was strongly recommended by the said MP to incorporate Section 85A into the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill considering that the Bill was introduce to install a sense of confidence in our judicial process.  (p. 151, Lok Sabha Debates dt. 17.12.2015):

"The Law Commission of India, in its 246th Report, which recommended amendments to the Arbitration & Conciliation Act, 1996, had proposed to insert a new Section 85-A to the Act, which would clarify the scope of operation to each amendment with respect to pending arbitration proceedings. However, this specific recommendation has not been incorporated into the Ordinance. One of the reasons for bringing about this ordinance is to instil a sense of confidence in foreign investors in our judicial process, with regard to certainty of implementation in practice and ease of doing business. Therefore, it is strongly urged to incorporate Section 85A as proposed by the 46th Report of the law Commission of India, where it clearly states the scope of operation of the amended provisions."

Another MP, Shri  Mekpati Raja Ram Mohan Reddy (Nellore) wanted the Bill to apply even to pending “cases where the arbitrator is already appointed” (p. 158).


Importantly, the Minister of Law and Justice stated (at p. 190): “One of the suggestions was that it should have retrospective effect. If the parties agree, then there will be no problem. Otherwise, it will only have prospective effect.” (emphasised)

It is not known if there was an agreement between the parties for applicability of the Act retrospectively. At least the Debates do not disclose such an agreement. Thereafter the Law Minister wanted to introduce Section 25A to the Bill which is Section 26 of the 2015 Amendment Act. The Bill was passed in this form. From the TVS Delphi decision and the statement made by the Law Minister, it would seem that he was in favour of applicability of the 2015 amendments to the pending proceedings only if all the parties agreed to it. From the legal theory angle, a statement made by a member of the Parliament cannot be taken as the view of the Legislature but it would seem that the intent behind Section 25A of the Bill (Section 26) was to make the 2015 Amendment inapplicable to pending arbitral proceedings given the absence of indication of consensus in the Lok Sabha on applying the 2015 Amendments to pending arbitral proceedings. 

Certain developments have taken place on the issue since the last post on the topic. These are discussed below: 

In M/S. Reliance Capital Limited vs Chandana Creations (17.05.2016), the question before the Calcutta High Court was whether execution proceedings can continue notwithstanding the pendency of a Section 34 application against the arbitral award sought to be executed. The Single Judge held that the 2015 Amendment Act did not apply to arbitral proceedings commenced prior to 23.10.2015. The Court held: 

"The bare look of the said provision gives an impression that the arbitral proceedings which commenced before coming in the said amended Act shall still be regularized and guided by the unamended provisions unless the parties agree that the amended provisions would apply."

The Court also noted that there was another decision of the Calcutta High Court [Shri Nitya Ranjan Jena vs. Tata Capital Financial Services Limited (AP No. 15 of 2016, GA No. 145 of 2016, decided on 2nd March 2016) which concurred with the aforesaid view. Curiously, the Single Judge did not cite Tufan Chatterjee v Rangan Dhar, which was a Division Bench judgement of the same High Court and which held the contrary view. 

The Gujarat High Court seems to have made the 2015 Amendment Act apply in arbitral proceedings pending before 23.10.2015 for termination of mandate of arbitrator. 

At the end of the day, the post dt. 28.102.2015 and the decision of the Madras High Court dt. 24.11.2015 were correct in predicting the difference of views on the issue.

10 comments:

Anonymous said...

"At the end of the day, the post dt. 28.102.2015 and the decision of the Madras High Court dt. 24.11.2015 were correct in predicting the difference of views on the issue."

So what according to you is the correct approach/judgment among these different views?

Badrinath Srinivasan said...

Kindly see the Conclusion in Part II of the post on the topic. It effectively states that the 2015 amendment cannot apply to Pending Arbitration Related Court Proceedings.

Anonymous said...

Thanks, I did go through the discussion. So, basically Reliance Capital, Nitya Ranjan Jena and Electrosteels Castings say the same thing, whereas Tufan Chatterjee and New Tirupur contradict them?

Badrinath Srinivasan said...

Yes.

Anonymous said...

I don't see how Nitya Ranjan Jena, Electrosteels and Reliance Capital contradict Tufan Chatterjee. According to Tufan Chatterjee
"The amendment Act of 2015, which came into force with effect from 23rd October, 2015, would apply to arbitral proceedings which commenced after 23rd October, 2015 but not to arbitral proceedings which commenced before 23rd October, 2015. The Amendment Act of 2015 would apply to all Court proceedings on and from 23rd October, 2015.
The amendment Act of 2015 has retrospective operation from 23 rd October, 2015. After 23 rd October, 2015, the Court cannot entertain an application for interim relief under Section 9(1) of the 1996 Act, once the arbitral tribunal has been constituted, unless the Court is satisfied that circumstances exist, which may not render the remedy provided under Section 17 efficacious."

It clearly says that the Amendment Act will not apply to Arbitral proceedings which commenced pre-amendment. That is also what all the other Cal HC judgments like Nitya Ranjan, Electrosteels and Reliance Capital say. Tufan Chatterjee only says that the Amendment Act will apply to court related arbitration proceedings retrospectively. Nitya Ranjan, Electrosteels and Reliance Capital do not even talk about court related arbitration proceedings. So how are they contradictory?

Badrinath Srinivasan said...

In these posts we talk only about arb related court proceedings. Tufan says the 2015 amendment applies t court proceedings while the other decisions do not. For instance in reliance, the issue was whether the new enforcement provisions would come into play which the court negatived.

Badrinath Srinivasan said...

In these posts we talk only about arb related court proceedings. Tufan says the 2015 amendment applies t court proceedings while the other decisions do not. For instance in reliance, the issue was whether the new enforcement provisions would come into play which the court negatived.

Anonymous said...

Have you read the judgment of the Bombay HC in Kochi Cricket v. BCCI [Chamber Summons No. 1530 of 2015 in Execution Application (L) No. 2481 of 2015]?

Badrinath Srinivasan said...

Yeah there are a few Delhi n bom hc decisions after we wrote these posts

Badrinath Srinivasan said...

Yeah there are a few Delhi n bom hc decisions after we wrote these posts